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Franz Beicht / Günther Buchinger / Manuela Fritz / Helga Schönfellner-Lechner
Die Kremser Statue der hl. Anna Selbzweit. Zu ihrer Restaurierung sowie historischen und kunsthistorischen Bewertung
Oliver Fries / Robert Kuttig
Die Burgkapelle auf Schloss Schallaburg. Ergebnisse der bauhistorischen Untersuchungen
Die Baukunst an der Wende von der Hoch- zur Spätgotik in Wien
Abbas Admundus Haainricus Abhinc Oriundus. Die Bildfenster von St. Walpurgis als Memoria für ihren Stifter Abt Heinrich von Admont
„Du bist ein gürtel wol beslagen, den got hat selber umb getragen“. Zu den Inschriften und Textgrundlagen des Lebensbaumfensters in Tamsweg
Christina Wais-Wolf / Günther Buchinger
Mittelalterliche und neuzeitliche Glasmalerei. Erforschung und Restaurierung
Martin Mudri / Paul Schuster
Röntgenblick in die Vergangenheit. Aktuelle Bauforschung und Infrarotthermografie in Schloss Eggenberg
Neue Aspekte zum Oeuvre Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlachs. Eine aktuelle Bauforschung im ehemaligen Palais Orsini-Rosenberg, später Palais Batthyány, Herrengasse 19, in Wien
Prinz Eugens Schloss Bilje und die Problematik des befestigten Schlosses
Von der Hofburg ins Kloster. Zur Revitalisierung von Deckenbildern Peter Strudels
Planungen von Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach für die Wiener Hofburg in zwei Nachzeichnungen des „Codex Albrecht“ und ihre Verbindungen zur europäischen Palastarchitektur des Barock
Das Deckenbild im Festsaal der Wiener Reichskanzlei. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit „Caesar et Imperium“ von Franz Matsche, vornehmlich aus historischer Sicht
Subkutan. Einige Beobachtungen zu Architekturoberflächen Otto Wagners und seiner Schule Inge Podbrecky Oskar Strnads Haus Wassermann. Eine Inkunabel der Wiener Moderne
Die Restaurierungsgeschichte der Franziskanerkirche in Salzburg
Landeskonservator Eduard Hütter (1880–1967). Schwerpunkte der Salzburger Denkmalpflege zwischen 1913 und 1945
Der Umgang mit den beschlagnahmten Kunstwerken aus Schlössern des ehemaligen Herrscherhauses Habsburg-Lothringen. Ein Dilemma für die junge Tschechoslowakische Republik nach 1918
Michael Grabner / Günther Buchinger / Markus Jeitler
Dendrochronologie und Dendroprovenancing. Der aktuelle Stand der historischen Holzforschung in Ostösterreich
Rückkehr nach 90 Jahren? Die Geschichte des Nestroy-Denkmals
Franz Beicht / Günther Buchinger / Manuela Fritz / Helga Schönfellner-Lechner
The Statue in Krems of St. Anne with Child – On its Restoration and a Historical and Art-History Evaluation
The restoration of the Krems statue of St. Anne with Child in 2014, in which the original surface exposed in 1966/67 was cleaned, provided an opportunity for a historical and art-history examination. As an example of an early veneration of St Anne in Austria, the sculpture is one of a rare type of a seated St. Anne with Mary as a child, and its frontal nature shows a locally influenced and retarding style for the time around 1330, without any turn or inclination in the body structure, with the result that neither of the figures is turned towards the other. Alongside the stylistic classification, it has been determined that the group of figures was commissioned by the Krems municipal magistrate Leupold, presumed to be a grandson of the famous minister of King Ottokar of Bohemia, Gozzo von Krems, or by his sons, for the Chapel of St. Anne founded by Leupold in the Krems Frauenberg Church. In the 18th century the statue, at the time fallen into oblivion, was moved to the Krems town parish church, where it was given a separate chapel on the outside wall opening out onto the graveyard. The intensive historical examination of St. Anne with Child reveals the case, extremely rare in the history of Austrian art, of a Gothic sculpture of the early 14th century to which the person commissioning it can be attributed.
Oliver Fries/Robert Kuttig
The Chapel at Schallaburg Castle.
Results of the Investigation of the History of the Building 2009–2015 Since 2009, the Schallaburg has been the object of investigations of the history of the building by the authors in parallel with building activity. The particular focus of this research is on the chapel, in part built on the foundations of an older religious building in the form of a rotunda. The chapel dates from a high-medieval building period and was constructed around 1100 or in the early 12th century. However, the chapel is not part of the original elements of the high-medieval castle. In order to build the chapel, a part of the enclosing wall from the first phase of construction was demolished and the chapel located on the wall such that the apse of the approx. 7.20 by 11 metre hall protrudes beyond the building line of the outer wall. In a subsequent high-medieval building stage, a three-nave hall crypt was inserted in the lower storey of the chapel, part of which was lost during building work in the 19th century. In the years around 1500, the chapel was extended towards the west with a gallery in the upper storey and a gable top on ashlar consoles. In the Counterreformation, efforts were made to establish the chapel as a church in its own right. Today there is no trace of the Baroque ornamentation, of which particular mention should be made of the altar painting dated 1665 by the famous painter and topographer Clemens Beuttler. During the renovation of the Schallaburg between 1968 and 1974 under Wilhelm Zotti, the remains of the altar table against the south wall of the chapel were removed and the remains of the tomb of Hans Wilhelm von Losenstein formerly dispersed in Loosdorf parish church were reassembled and re-erected in the upper storey of the chapel in 1974.
Architecture at the Turning Point between High and Late Gothic in Vienna
Towards the end of the 14th century, Austrian architecture underwent a fundamental modification or even reinvention of the Gothic style. This change around 1400 led to the development of late Gothic architecture of the 15th and early 16th centuries. The first ribbed vaulting in Austrian late Gothic can be found in the nave of Maria am Gestade in Vienna, dating from 1414. But evidence of the late Gothic shape of the vesical pisces can be found as early as 1381 in the Tutzsäule in Klosterneuburg. The delicate re-entrant groin ribs, a central motif of late Gothic vaults, is evidenced for the first time in the church in Weidling in 1403 to 1407. As with the development of the High Gothic, Vienna and its surroundings played a central role in the development of the Late Gothic, in the creation of new forms. In the nave of St Stephen’s in Vienna, a climax of vault art was reached through the use of complicated net and star ribbed vaulting. This development, which took several decades and in which new vault techniques were tried out, also brought innovative vault solutions even to the regions more remote from Vienna.
ABBAS ADMUNDUS HAAINRICUS ABHINC ORIUNDUS. The Pictorial Windows of St. Walpurgis as Memoria to their Founder Abbot Heinrich von Admont
Abbot Heinrich von Admont, who was born in the St. Walpurgis region, was the founder of the reconstruction and new building of the daughter church in this village. One pane of the choir windows shows Abbot Heinrich holding a ribbon bearing this text. In another glass painting, St. Walpurgis, the patron saint of the church, likewise holds a ribbon bearing a text containing an encoded reference to the death of Abbot Heinrich, who was murdered in 1297. With its foliage capitals and tracery windows, the choir is one of the earliest Gothic works in Styria. The ornamentation can be interpreted as a bower of paradise, which means that it was a memorial donation by Abbot Heinrich’s scholarly successor, Abbot Engelbert. The vault contains delicate tendril paintings and the glass windows presented a ceremonial collection of painted statues (of the originally 41 rectangular panes only 15 have survived to the present). These show firstly the wise and foolish virgins, a reference to the Last Judgment, and secondly early Christian protomartyrs who have gained the crown of immortality. Like the „gisants“ of medieval sepulchre sculptures, the image of Abbot Heinrich represents a person who is neither living nor dead but who is rather in a state of beatification. He is intended to be as it were present in the church he founded and at the same time to have arrived in an indeed lovingly presented hereafter.
„Du bist ein gürtel wol beslagen, den got hat selber umb getragen.“
On the Inscriptions and Text Bases of the Life-Tree Window in Tamsweg
The present paper was a lecture at the 27th International Colloquium of the Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi in York, Great Britain, on the general topic of "Word and Image”. Taking as example the life-tree window in the pilgrimage church of St. Leonhard ob Tamsweg dating from around 1435, the theologically complex inscriptions are analysed as word in the image. Ancient and medieval texts from the field of poetry, philosophy and panegyrics are used to reveal the development of the specific iconography of the window and the creation of the image from the word, and contemporary explanations as word about the image are identified. The event of the Annunciation to Mary beneath the life-tree, in which the Mother of God is connected by a chain to God the Father, and the figures bearing inscriptions from the New Testament and from liturgical texts differentiated by colour, can on the one hand be interpreted as an elite pictorial programme on the basis of theological-ontological texts (the catena aurea as allegory of the Creation, Mary’s chasteness and the restriction of God’s omnipotence in freedom), but also, on the other hand, as a moral and didactic programme intended to demonstrate the emptying of self to the pilgrims in the context of the girding of the church and mystical practices. It is to be assumed that sermons were used to communicate the corresponding content to the faithful, whose processions in the church of St Leonhard passed by the life-tree window.
Christina Wais-Wolf / Günther Buchinger
Medieval and Early Modern Glass Painting Investigation and Restoration
In the field of Austrian glass painting research (project: Corpus Vitrearum), research and restoration have always supplemented each other. In the period between 2012 and 2015, too, the restoration work on medieval and 19th century glass paintings carried out in the workshops of the Federal Monument Authority (Arsenal) has substantially enriched the knowledge about workshops, techniques, iconography, style and dating. In addition, the said period also saw a number of discoveries of glass paintings that had previously been unknown, were no longer perceived or even thought to be lost (fragments around 1250 from Frauenburg in Styria; rosettes of blossoms from 1380 from St. Stephen’s, Vienna; Mary with Halo from the 1520s from Steyr, Upper Austria). The significance of some of these glass paintings could be fully appreciated thanks to expertises by representatives of the Austrian Corpus Vitrearum committee, resulting not only in ensuring their purchase in Austria but also, subsequently, their public accessibility (pietà representation, early 15th century, from Seiz bei Kammern, now Admont Monastery, Styria; heraldic panel of Archduke Ferdinand II, 1574, today Ambras Castle, Tyrol). The paper presents an overview of the intensive activity and noteworthy “research highlights” of the last few years.
Martin Mudri/Paul Schuster
X-Ray into the Past. Current Architectural Research and Infrared Thermography in Schloss Eggenberg
As part of a pilot project by the Schloss Eggenberg department at the Joanneum Universal Museum and Mudri Messtechnik, investigations of the architectural substance have been carried out using infrared thermography since 2014. Thermal radiation images provide a view behind the plaster layers, permitting an exact location of otherwise invisible architectural details. Sand, brick or quarry stone are characterised by their different thermal conductivity or specific thermal capacity, as are building seams, beams or beam holes, changes in storey heights or chimney drafts. The first analyses produced not only surprising results about Schloss Eggenberg’s predecessor building, but also a mass of new indications on the history of the construction and function of the princely residence. This non-invasive investigation method is an inestimable tool for research, especially in the particularly sensitive field of protected architectural monuments, since there is no need for interventions in the substance, which by necessity always involve destruction. The data obtained also constitutes an extremely precise basis for all further invasive investigations. The view behind the plastered or painted surfaces also permits a rapid visualisation of larger architectural history contexts in a building complex.
New Aspects on Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach’s Work. A Contemporary Architectural Investigation in the Former Palais Orsini-Rosenberg, later the Palais Batthyány, Herrengasse 19, in Vienna
The former Palais Orsini-Rosenberg, later the Palais Batthyány, in Herrengasse 19 in Vienna’s 1st District, has a High Baroque portal, the last element of a late 17th century façade that has survived in a pictorial representation. The attribution of the façade to Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach continues to be disputed. An architectural investigation prior to the general restoration of the Palais in 2013 revealed that a preceding structure dating back to the late middle ages was merely given a new façade in the High Baroque under Wolf Andre Orsini-Rosenberg, with a new access being created by means of a self-supporting spiral staircase over an octagonal ground-plan. This staircase form, rare in the early modern period, derives from Andrea Palladio, and can also be found at Duino Castle near Trieste, the seat of Count Orsini-Rosenberg’s second wife, from where this structural idea was apparently suggested to the count. Outside Italy, self-supporting spiral staircases were mainly to be found in England in the 17th century, and were only taken up again in larger numbers on the continent in the architectural tractates of the late 17th century, following Palladio. There is evidence that Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach was inspired by Palladio in the design of such staircases, and was the only Austrian High Baroque architect to execute two of them. It is by virtue of this structurally bold staircase construction, which could only have been executed by Fischer von Erlach even in Vienna, that the attribution of the former façade and portal of the Palais Orsini-Rosenberg to the famous architect is to be upheld.
Prince Eugenes Palace in Bilje and the Problem of the fortified Palace The Bilje (Hung. Bellye) castle, in today’s Croatia, was erected by Eugene of Savoy in the early 18th century. No documents have been preserved from the time of its construction, but there is some documentation from a later period, such as the castle inventory made after Eugene’s death in 1736 and the precious architectural survey from 1766. The castle is a relatively modest and small building, from which it can be concluded that it was primarily used as the seat of the estate, and not as the owner’s residence. In this analysis the castle is discussed in relation to some of Eugene’s other castles which had various roles and purposes (Schlosshof, Promontor, Ráckeve). As the most important building of the estate, the modest Bilje castle was surrounded by a relatively strong fortification. In addition to the rampart and the moat, it had further elements that made it a complete bastion fortification. Such an unexpected composition can be linked to the uncertain circumstances at the time of its erection, coincident with the huge antihapsburg uprising.
„From the Hofburg to the Monastery. On the Revitalisation of Peter Strudel’s Ceiling Paintings“ For the marriage between King Joseph I and Wilhelmine Amalia of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in February 1699, the piano nobile in the Leopoldine Wing of the Vienna Hofburg was redecorated. Recent research and architectural investigations of the Hofburg have provided evidence of the stuccateur Johann Piazoll but only a fragment of a stucco ceiling, since the royal apartments were completely redesigned after 1740. Nevertheless, the decoration of the rooms with 148 paintings by the court painter Peter Strudel is still unsolved. After the bride arrived from Modena with a large entourage, the wedding meal was held in the Knights’ Room, of which there have survived two contradictory contemporary representations. Of Strudel’s paintings, some of which were as large as 4 m, 82 still existed in 1772, but only 56, on three rolls under the staircase of the Neue Burg, survived into the 1960s. The proposed Habsburg programme of pictures was not implemented for the wing of the Neue Burg, and only 4 paintings by Strudel (of many more that were no doubt planned) have been used here since 1916 to the present. Of the other ceiling paintings by Strudel restored in the 1970s and 1980s in the Federal Office for Monument Preservation, 7 were given a new lease of life in the Concert Hall of the Vienna Academy of Music adapted in 1988 in the Salesian Monastery constructed on Rennweg by Wilhelmine Amalia following the death of her husband.
Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach’s Plans for the Vienna Hofburg in Two Copies in the „Codex Albrecht“ and their Links to European Baroque Palace Architecture
The Codex Albrecht (Austrian National Library, Cod. Vind. 7853) is a manuscript intended for publication containing concepts for the pictorial decoration of numerous buildings and monuments planned and in part executed at the request of Emperor Karl VI. Hitherto, the author has wrongly been assumed to be Konrad Adolph von Albrecht, who gave his name to the Codex. Amongst the many drawings attached to it, mostly copies of designs by the artists involved, there are two copies of designs by the Imperial Court Architect Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach, who was commissioned by the Emperor in 1726 to rebuild the entire Hofburg. This can be concluded from the two copies in the Codex Albrecht, one of which shows Fischer’s plans for how the Hofburg was to be connected to the city by means of the city façade, at the time still not implemented, and the newly designed Michaelerplatz as the forecourt and meeting point of the streets leading to the residence. The other copy shows what is probably Fischer’s earliest design for the façade of the Imperial Chancellery Wing on Burgplatz, which takes up ideas from his days as a student in Paris, above all from the plans of Gian Lorenzo Bernini for the Louvre. This façade was the start of the young Fischer’s rebuilding of the Hofburg which, as the decoration concept in the Codex Albrecht reveals, comprised, as a first stage, the uniform enclosure of Burgplatz which, with the political programme of the sculptural façade decoration, was to become the central point of the Hofburg. The second stage was to be the construction of the city façade with Michaelerplatz, which was only completed in the 19th century.
The Ceiling Fresco in the Ceremonial Hall of the Vienna Imperial Chancellery. A discussion of „Caesar et Imperium“ by Franz Matsche – primarily from a historical point of view
In his publication „Caesar et Imperium”, Franz Matsche presented the ideological and hence highly political contradictions between the Habsburg loyalty of the façade ornamentation of the Imperial Chancellery and the message communicated by the ceiling fresco commissioned by Karl Friedrich von Schönborn, Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire, for the Ceremonial Hall of his apartment in the heart of this part of the Vienna Hofburg. According to Matsche, it propagated, under the ambiguous motto „Caesar et Imperium”, the advantages of a government of the Holy Roman Empire by a partnership in which the Emperor and the Princes of the Empire collaborated to the benefit of all. This concept stood as a via media between the extreme position of the Emperor, who felt he could continue to rule absolutely in the Empire in the manner of the Caesars of antiquity, in accordance with the theories of the four world empires and the translatio imperii, and that of most of the Princes, who insisted on the rights they had gained in the Peace of Westphalia. The first part of the paper discusses Matsche’s conclusions and makes critical comments on a number of aspects. The emphasis is on the finding that the anti-papal tendencies of the ceiling fresco were much more strongly marked than Matsche assumed. Reference is made to the sources of this Catholic patchwork of history that, relying on long-outdated conditions, above all emphasised the status of the Empire in Italy acquired through the right of the victor and the equally alleged significance of the Imperial Knighthood at the expense of other imperial institutions such as the Eternal Imperial Diet. They are to be found amongst Protestant theoreticians and the “imperial publicists”.
Subcutaneous. Some Observations on Architectural Surfaces by Otto Wagner and his School Viennese architecture around 1900 is characterized by subtle surfaces. Neutral areas, often in the form of plates, are sometimes combined with realistic floral adornment. In some examples, like the stations of the Wiener Stadtbahn, the first layer is opened up to enable a perspective on structures lying beyond it. This phenomenon develops less from a classicist tradition of pillar projection, but primarily serves to show the principles of construction. Yet, this opening-up of underlying constructions is, dialectially, also serving an ornamental purpose. At the end, this article also attempts to show parallels to the structuring patterns of Viennese architecture in the early nineteenth century.
Oskar Strnad’s Wassermann House. An Incunabulum of Viennese Modernism
The text illuminates a number of radical typological and functional innovations introduced by the little-known Wassermann House in Vienna. The building, constructed in 1914/15 for the author Jakob Wassermann and his family according to plans by Oskar Strnad, is one of the most important single-family dwellings of early Viennese Modernism. In chronological terms, it is located shortly after the Scholl and Strauss houses designed by Strnad-Frank-Wlach, Strnad’s Hock house in Grinzing, Adolf Loos’ Horner and Scheu houses and roughly at the same time as Josef Hoffmann’s villa colony in the Kaasgraben. The street façade itself is already enigmatic: A high narrow projection with a Mannerist portal extending almost to the edge, a decentral window. Strnad’s deconstruction and recontextualisation of traditional motifs created a new architectural language that ironically and psychologically evokes memories of the Classical without specifying them precisely. Regularities can only be found in the exterior if one considers this projection together with the façade of the L-shaped projecting living room, located much further back, which constitutes the building’s formal and content-related climax: as a reception room, lounge, dining room, music and playroom, it combines a number of functions that previously had been distributed over several rooms, thus revolutionising the ground plan of residential houses for the ensuing period up to the present. In addition, the living room is located at the end of a long and varied axis of movement, leading from the garden gate through the front garden and within the house to the living room. In this way, Strnad anticipated Josef Frank’s text, „Haus als Weg und Platz” (1931) well in advance.
The Restoration History of the Franciscan Church in Salzburg
The Franciscan church in the heart of Salzburg is unusual in terms of both architecture and art history. The Romanesque nave, the Gothic choir and the Baroque apse chapels, in their stylistic conglomeration, constitute the most significant church in Salzburg from the point of view of art history. The present appearance of the church is characterised by four major restorations that the church has undergone since the beginning of the confrontation with monument conservation. Since these interventions took place at roughly equal intervals, their closer examination allows us to determine whether the restoration history of the Franciscan church has gone hand in hand with the development of the theoretical and practical positions of monument conservation. To this end, a period of 130 years has been examined, starting with the first major restoration in the 1860s and ending with currently the last such in the 1980s.
Handling Confiscated Works of Art from Palaces of the Former Ruling Habsburg-Lothringen Family. A Dilemma for the Young Czech Republic after 1918
The article addresses the system for administering the palaces that belonged to the former Austro-Hungarian ruling family and the descendants of Archduke Franz Ferdinand d’Este and that became the property of the Republic of Czechoslovakia after 1918. A study is made of the uses of the buildings and the interior furnishing under the administration of the State Enterprise for State Forests and Estates; one point of focus is the effort of the Popular Education Section of the Ministry for Schools and Popular Education to ensure expert supervision of the selected artistically valuable furnishing and its search for a way of presenting it to the public in an appropriate manner. Although the relevant institutions showed an awareness of their responsibility for the problem of securing and using the former Habsburg-Lothringen palaces, all the documents disclose a certain helplessness that resulted in a merely minimal use of the cultural potential of the said properties.
Landeskonservator Eduard Hütter (1880–1967). Focal Points of Monument Preservation in Salzburg, 1913–1945
Eduard Hütter (1880–1967), trained as an architect in Vienna around 1900 by Max von Ferstel and the like, was the leading monument conservator for the cultural heritage department in Salzburg from 1913 to 1945. This article explores some of his tasks and projects during this period, beginning with a brief introduction setting out his professional biographical details. The next section, concentrating on the disposal of art objects, the constructional transformation of the landmarked building fabric, the creation of war memorials and the rescue of cultural assets, emphasises two major projects of the 1920s: The establishment of an art gallery on the third floor of the Residency and the very first construction of an interim solution for Salzburg Festival performances.
Michael Grabner / Günther Buchinger / Markus Jeitler
Dendrochronology and Dendroprovenancing – The Latest State of Historical Wood Research in Austria
The aim of this contribution is, after twenty years of intensive collaboration between conservationist-motivated architectural research and dendrochronology, to set out the methodology of this scientific discipline and to investigate the questions that have now been solved and what new questions are today driving the interdisciplinary discourse within the various architectural research disciplines (architectural archaeology, art history, archive research, dendrochronology, etc). The exact determination of the age of historical wood is beyond doubt dendrochronology’s most significant contribution to architectural research, even if account must be taken of certain aspects that require considerable experience in the interpretation of the findings. This applies in particular to the discrepancy between date of felling and date of construction. This time difference has given rise to the question of where the construction timber came from and what periods of time need to be calculated for felling, transportation and rafting. In this respect, the differentiation of dendrochronology in the form of what is known as dendroprovenancing will, over the next few years, contribute additional knowledge for architectural research thanks to the systematic preparation of regional calibration curves. However, there are limits to this method, above all due to uniform climates across different potential harvesting grounds.
Coming home after 90 Years. The History of the Nestroy-Monument
In 1929 the „Bund der Nestroyfreunde“ (Society of the Friends of Nestroy) erected a monument for the famous Austrian playwright and actor Johann Nestroy (1901–1862). It was initially located in the 2nd district (Leopoldstadt) opposite the Carl Theater, where Nestroy celebrated many successful performances. The Carl Theater was destroyed in World-War 2 and also the monument seemed to be doomed, it should be melted for weapon-production but finally survived the War and was re-erected in the garden of the Max-Reinhardt- Seminar (the former Braunschweig-Schlösschen) in the 14th district. Later it was transferred to another site in the 2nd district at the crossing of Praterstraße and Zirkusgasse. Now it is planned to relocate it to the original site.