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AUS DEM INHALT:
Schutz und Symbol. Zur Stadtbefestigung von Wien vom hohen Mittelalter bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts
Heike Krause / Ingrid Mader
Die frühneuzeitliche Stadtbefestigung von Wien. Aktuelle Grabungsergebnisse der Stadtarchäologie Wien
Die Hofburg als Festung (13.–16. Jahrhundert)
Schriftquellen zur Bauorganisation der Wiener Stadtbefestigung im 16. Jahrhundert. Neue Überlegungen zum Bau der Burg- und Löblbastei
Zum Verhältnis der Wiener Burg zur Stadtbefestigung im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert
Diether Kramer / Leopold Toifl
Zum Vergleich: die Entwicklung der Grazer Stadtbefestigung im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert
Markus Jeitler / Richard Kurdiovsky / Anna Mader-Kratky
Niveaus und Terrains. Zur räumlichen Rekonstruktion der Wiener Burgbefestigung
Fest und Festung. Die Wiener Burgbefestigung als Bauplatz von Tanzsälen und Opernhäusern im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert
„… die Festung zu halten oder mit ihr zu fallen.“ Die Burgbastei und ihre militärhistorische Bedeutung
„Auf dem Zauberhaufen“. Der Burgravelin und die Funktionalisierung des Gedächtnisses an den Entsatz Wiens von den Türken 1683
„Waren hier die alten Wälle?“ – Zur Genese und Entwicklung der gärtnerischen Nutzung auf dem Gelände der fortifikatorischen Anlagen im Bereich der Wiener Hofburg
Werner Michael Schwarz
Bewegungsspuren. Zur Kritik an der Stadtbefestigung im 18. Jahrhundert
Wien ist keine Festung mehr. Zur Geschichte der Burgbefestigung im 18. Jahrhundert und ihrer Sprengung 1809
Planungen für den Äußeren Burgplatz von der Sprengung im Jahre 1809 bis zur Errichtung des Burgtores
„Die Eröffnung des irdischen Paradieses“. Neue Lebenswelten auf der Wiener Bastei zwischen Josephinismus und Vormärz
Harald Robert Stühlinger
Vom Platz zum Denkmalsort. Der Äußere Burgplatz im Lichte der frühen Fotografie
Die Burgbefestigung in den Planungen für Ringstraße und Kaiserforum. Vom allmählichen Verschwinden der Wiener Stadtmauer
„Wie wir da über die Basteien hinaus in die weite blaue Ferne blicken …“. Burgbastei theatral
Protection and Symbolism. Concerning the fortification of Vienna from high middle age to the mid 19th century
The introduction provides an overview of the development of the Viennese fortification through focussing in turn on the Roman legion camp, which probably offered protection until the 12th century, the fortification of the 16th and 17th centuries, based on Italian examples, and finally the cessation of Vienna as fortress in 1817 and the removal of the bastions under Emperor Franz Joseph. Fortifications are given prominence as indispensable features of every town, whose protective function is described, along with their symbolic potency, both essential components of municipal self-confidence. Emphasis is also given to the relevancy of town gates as distinctive parts of the walls, which functioned additionally as a border and communication place between inside and out. Credence is also given to the history of their naming.
HEIKE KRAUSE / INGRID MADER
The early modern town fortification of Vienna. Actual results from the excavations undertaken by the Stadtarchäologie Wien (Town Archaeology Vienna)
During the excavations by the Stadtarchäologie Wien in the years 2005–2008, various elements of the Viennese town fortification were recorded. Excavations for a new underground garage below Weihburggasse, between Schellinggasse and Parkring, uncovered the remains of the old town rampart, counterscarp, subterranean rooms and pillars of a bridge. During the refurbishment of the „Etablissement Ronacher“ at Seilerstätte 9, vestiges of the curtain wall as well as pillars and remnants of vaults originally belonging to the armoury, were documented. At the location of the plots Wipplingerstraße 33–35, building activities were also undertaken. There were exposed, in addition to the remains of the walls of the „Elendbastion“, parts of the middle-age town walls, the outer bailey, and remnants of a late middle-age settlement. Excavation at Neutorgasse 4–8 revealed remnants of the wall of „Neutorbastion“, the adjacent curtain wall and high to late middle-age settlements.
The Hofburg as a fortification (13th–16th centuries)
The article concerns the medieval history of the Hofburg and the town wall in its vicinity. Both a fortification and a residence of the Austrian dukes, the Hofburg was built at an important point in the town’s defences, adjacent to the city’s „Widmer“ Gate, which was incorporated into the castle complex no later than the early 15th century. The quadrangular castle was actually founded in the early 13th century and not, as was previously thought, in the third quarter of that century, by Ottokar II. Pøemysl. Both gate and castle were clad in rusticated masonry. The castle’s defences were improved during the Later Middle Ages, but by the 15th century, as the complex was too small to serve the demands made on it, Emperor Frederick III. began the extension of the Hofburg. Two sieges, in 1462 and 1490, showed that the old castle could not be defended in the age of artillery. With the erection of a bastion built in 1531 in front of the castle, its military and other functions were, from then onwards, separated and the Hofburg was transformed into a modern residence. The boundaries of the complex on the city side were then marked only symbolically.
Written Sources concerning the building organisation of the town fortification of Vienna in the 16th century. New considerations about the construction of Burg- and Löwelbastion
After the Hungarian defeat at Mohács (1526) and particularly after the first Turkish siege of Vienna (1529), the erection of a new town fortification in accordance with modern defence techniques had become inevitable. For this reason bastions were progressively built, commencing in 1531 with the Burg- and Schottenbastion. In 1543/44-48 the Löwelbastion followed, whose construction history is well documented in many written sources. This, for example, concerns questions about the organisation of the building site, the construction and sequence of building, combining to make a unique insight into building coordination of that time. Archive research has been carried out on all three of bastions discussed here, which, together with the published sources, provide new knowledge about the emergence and chronology of the early modern town fortification of Vienna.
About the relationship between the Viennese Hofburg and the town fortification in the 16th and 17th century
From the wide diversity of topics about the Viennese town fortification, this article deals specifically with the relationship between the Viennese Hofburg and the Burg Bastion during the 16th and 17th century. This is placed within the context of the most important contemporary event of the time, the building of Hofburg and the town fortification. Supplementing new knowledge about the construction and function-history of the old Burg Bastion, the link between these military structures and the Hofburg is also analysed, along with its spatial development.
DIETHER KRAMER / LEOPOLD TOIFL
For comparison: the development of the town fortification of Graz in the 16th and 17th century
The development of the fortification of Graz shows parallels with the Viennese fortification in several aspects. The middle-age complex was widened and partly replaced with fortification after a bastion system in the 16th and 17th century, although it did not have to withstand any serious challenge during this time. The bastions, like their Viennese counterparts, were used for several purposes, e.g. as gardens. After its successful defence, the fortification on the Graz castle hill was blown up by French troops in the year 1809, whereas the Graz town fortification, which had already lost its original function during the 18th century, was left intact. Although in many places it was gradually demolished, several elements could, in contrary to Vienna, be kept and transformed into garden constructions or integrated into other urban structures.
MARKUS JEITLER / RICHARD / KUDIOVSKY / ANNA MADER-KRATKY
Levels and terrains. Concerning the spatial reconstruction of the Viennese Hofburg fortification
The relationship between the historic levels of the Viennese Hofburg fortification from the middle age to the 19th century provides an essential key for answering questions about the building history and functions of the Hofburg. In the past, this very difficult topic had been inadequately researched, creating various confusions. This article attempts to clear them up. With the help of the numerous pictorial and plan material, in addition to written sources, an improved interpretation of the varying terrains through time is now feasible. Substantial findings conclude that the „Spanier“ (the bastion of the 16th century in front of the Hofburg) could not have functioned as the cavalier of the Burg Bastion; that the fortifications were at all times adapted according to different construction projects; and that the significance of the big height differences at the curtain walls has to be clearly recognised.
Fortification and festival. The Viennese fortification as construction site for dance halls and theatre buildings in the 16th and 17th century
Soon after completion the Viennese town fortification’s most prominent part, the Burg Bastion („Spanier“), served as building place for temporary dancing halls and as a venue for court festivals. The reason for this was that in 1560 and 1571, important meetings of the Habsburg family and its Bavarian relatives took place in Vienna/Hofburg and consequently many tournaments, banquets, masquerades and dance events were organised. The wooden halls were constructed to generous proportions and could therefore accommodate considerably more guests than would have been possible within the narrow rooms of the emperor’s castle. Viewed from the exterior, they were unremarkable but the interiors were resplendent with all one could expect from the imperial court. A similar situation occurred on the Augustiner curtain wall, when a theatre building was erected there 100 years later. It was planned for the wedding of emperor Leopold I with the Spanish infant Margarita Teresa in the year 1666, but could only be opened two years later for the grand opera „Il pomo d’oro“. This opera house’s stage was architecturally, pictorially and technically complex, but was used only rarely and had to be pulled down during the 1683 siege by the Ottomans because it was standing in the line of fire. Parts of its wooden construction were reused in fortification structures.
„… die Festung zu halten oder mit ihr zu fallen.“ („… to hold the fortress or to fall with it“). The Burg Bastion and its importance in military history
From 14 July to 12 September 1683 the Ottomans laid siege to Vienna for a second time. The Ottomans’ attacks were directed mainly towards the wall section between the „Burgtor“ and the „Schottentor“. Although the artillery of the besiegers was inferior to those of the defenders, the Ottoman elite troops succeeded in advancing to the outworks and finally to the city walls, afflicted great damage by detonating mines in preparation for an all-out attack. Sorties ordered by the commander of the defences, Count Ruediger of Starhemberg and the repulsion of the various storms caused heavy casualties among the defenders, especially among the officers. From the beginning of August, the Ottomans concentrated their attacks on the „Burgravelin“, which they ultimately captured on 3 September thus finally standing directly in front of the city walls. As they were aware of the approach of a relief army, the Ottoman commander-in-chief Kara Mustapha tried to quickly bring about a result, but the heavy storms were repelled by the defenders at great cost of life. The relief army liberated Vienna on 12 September after 62 days of siege.
„Auf dem Zauberhaufen“ („On the magic hill“). The Burg Ravelin and the functionalising of the memory of the relief of Vienna from the Turks 1683
The picture „Auf dem Zauberhaufen“ by the painter Wenzel Ottokar Noltsch offers a starting point for further analysis on the functionalising of the memory with regard to the relief of Vienna from the Turks 1683. The „Magic hill“ is a synonym for the Viennese Burg Ravelin which the Ottomans made their main goal during the siege of 1683. It is also a metaphor for the later creation of the theme „Vienna 1683“, employed to strengthening the ‘we-feelings’ and to create new themes about the enemy. Secular festivals, monuments and pictures became the central buttresses of identification politics with regards to inclusive and exclusive functions. Consequently, they became a matter of heated controversies which found expression in the selection of the monument-worthy heroes and the choice of the standpoint of their memorials. Town, state and church acted competitively with regards to monuments and produced, by actualising the relief of Vienna, not only perpetual new threats but also the hope of victory over new enemies. By looking at the theme of the Turks as bogeymen, the article analyses in which way old memories were over-written anew, whilst maintaining the concept of the enemy function over a long period of time.
„Waren hier die alten Wälle?“ („Were here the old ramparts?“). About the genesis and development of the gardening on the fortified areas around the Viennese Hofburg
Focus is centred on the development of gardening on the fortification structures of Viennese Hofburg from 16th to 19th century. The first mention of gardening in written sources is the herb garden of Queen Anna which was installed on the Burg Bastion only two years after it was built. After 1553 it was rarely used and the last remnant of this garden disappeared during the widening of the fortification in 1622. In 1724, as part of the baroque project of Lucas von Hildebrandt, a garden was again considered. However, this never came to reality. The so called „Paradeisgartel“ (paradise garden) at the Löwelbastion was created around 1752 on the curtain walls between the Burg Bastion and the Löwelbastion. This was as a substitute for the dismantled „Paradeisgartel“ north of the castle. Also unknown until recently was that from 1625 onwards, on the curtain walls east of the Burg Bastion, there existed a kitchen and herb garden. In 1809, the blasting of the fortification complex created space for a huge new garden complex; the triple group Volksgarten – Äußerer Burgplatz (Heldenplatz) – Burggarten.
WERNER MICHAEL SCHWARZ
Traces of movement. Concerning the critics of the town fortification in the 18th century
The fortification and its influence on the inner urbanite mobility in the 18th century is placed in the spotlight through this article. Questions are asked about the daily usage, such as opening hours of the gates or commuter movements between town and periphery, all combined together with contemporary observations and evaluations. The fortifications were subjected to scathing criticism, particularly within the discussions on this Age of Enlightenment. By the complaints of narrowness, confusion and inconvenience, especially around the town gates and the Glacis, the new civic (male) self-understanding is articulated. The new demands from the upcoming industrial economy, for which the factors time and its control took a central role, may also be appreciated from these claims. Within this confrontation of „old“ and „new“ town, a complex bundle of new interests is clearly revealed, which also concerned the development of plot prices and the growing wish of the new civic class to show off.
Vienna: no longer a fortification. About the history of the Hofburg fortification in the 18th century to its blasting in 1809
At the begining and also in the middle of 18th century, localised widening works were executed at the Viennese town fortification but, because of the development of new military techniques, it lost most of its defensive function. Under Joseph II this development culminated in the opening of the bastions to the public (1785) and to the transformation of the fortification into a leisure area. From the middle of the 18th century, the fortification around the Hofburg was used by the court as a recreation area. Additionally, on the curtain wall towards the Löwelbastion, Franz I Stephan ordered the creation a modest court garden. Whilst providing a view into the periphery from the top of the bastion, its substructure was used for storage. In the autumn of 1809, as the French troops departed, the Viennese Hofburg fortification was blown up in stages on the order of Napoleon. However, several years earlier, the architect Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorf von Hohenberg had developed an enlargement-project for the Hofburg, which already ignored its fortification function.
Planning for the outer Burgplatz from the destruction in the year 1809 to the erection of the Burgtor
From 1810, Johann Aman, second court architect in the „Generalhofbauamt“ and his chief office director Ludwig von Remy thought deeply about a new arrangement for the castle fortification, destroyed in 1809. Until 1817, thorough competitive planning, they defined the formal and structural characteristics of the outer castle courtyard as well as two adjacent gardens and developed different schemes for the reinforcement and access of this complex. After Emperor Franz I cancelled the planning of Vienna as a fortified city, he subsequently ordered Ludwig von Remy to prepare the model for realisation. As part of the new defence against the suburbs called „Hornwerk“, the new Burgtor was completed in 1824, in whose genesis, as well as Remy and Luigi Cagnola from Milan, Pietro Nobile from Trieste was also heavily involved.
„Die Eröffnung des irdischen Paradieses“ (The Opening of Earthly Paradise). New living environments in early 19th century
After its official opening to the public by Emperor Joseph II, the military fortification surrounding Vienna was gradually, step by step, transformed into green areas. The bastion changed into a promenade, where the city’s population, who mainly lived in very constricted surroundings, could enjoy their recreation and leisure time. The most popular bastion was situated in front of the imperial Hofburg. Here in 1790, a temporary coffeehouse called „Ochsenmühle“ (Ox mill) was built. Beside coffee, refreshments and ice-cream, the public were provided with free music as a special lure. In the contemporary descriptions of the town, the social equality of visitors was emphasized. From 1804, on the Rotenturmbastion and in close proximity to the Viennese Danube port, a coffee tent was established. However, this never achieved the popularity of the „Ochsenmühle“ on the Burg Bastion. After the wars with France and the bombardment of the town in 1809, there followed years of economic collapse. Censorship and restrictive measures under the government of Emperor Franz I (II) oppressed the population and the increase in industrialisation widened the gap between rich and poor. The public leisure activities, already existing during the Age of Enlightenment, now increasingly enjoyed more luxurious surroundings. In the „Paradeisgartel“ (paradise garden) on Löwelbastion, a former imperial garden close to Hofburg, the coffeemaker Pietro Corti established a place of public entertainment with an elegant coffeehouse and music pavilion, which was acclaimed as the ‘opening of the earthly paradise’. Up to 15,000 visitors came to the open air concerts of Joseph Lanner. Corti’s success continued with his second legendary coffeehouse in Volksgarten, which was linked to Paradeisgartl.
HARALD R. STÜHLINGER
From Square to Monument-place. The outer Burgplatz in the light of early photography
This article deals with photographs of the outer Burgplatz made during the early days of photography, specialising particularly on photos taken between 1850 and 1865. For comparison with photographs from around the former Burg Bastion, images are provided from earlier or contemporary photographic campaigns in Vienna. A common image strategy is also introduced. Specifically, the photographs analysed can be divided into two groups: town views and photos of the Hofburg complex and the Burgplatz. The views are interesting because the incorporation of the „Zeremoniensaal“ (ceremonial hall) in the photos indicates this as the former location of the Burg Bastion. The photographic activities in Vienna start at 1840, about 30 years after the blasting of the Burg Bastion. The second group of photos focus on details of the outer Burgplatz. Next to the facade of Hofburg, against the Glacis, the Burgtor was photographed several times. Nonetheless there was also an exceptional interest in photographing the new Erzherzog Carl-Monument. The outstanding fact is that not only was the unveiling ceremony taken by several photographers but also that the development of the outer Burgplatz towards the monument and memorial space was starting to be documented by the young photographic media.
The Hofburg fortification in the planning for Ringstraße and Kaiserforum. Concerning the gradual disappearing of the Viennese town walls
With the development of the ground-plan 1858-1860, the function and the look of the former bastion promenade of Vormärz was adapted to accommodate the new desire for space. Functional, infrastructural and formal analogies to international town walls like the „Brühlsche Terrasse“ were emphasised in Gottfried Sempers and Carl Hasenauers stairway project for the „Kaiserforum“, but with the mass of the town walls noticeably reduced. In connection with the planned backdrop of the Burgtheater, the stretch of the former town rampart’s decorative worth as part of the surround of Hofburg was recognised. Simultaneously, the remainder of the town rampart was reduced to terraces, where initially the shape of the rampart and with it the silhouette impression of newly built houses, was kept visible. But finally this derivate of the old town rampart had also to disappear, establishing the traditional view of this area for the upper class inhabitants; and green, free space in front of their palace windows.
„Wie wir da über die Basteien hinaus in die weite blaue Ferne blicken“ („As we look over the bastions into the wide blue yonder“). The theatrical Hofburg Bastion
The theatrical bastion balcony was already receiving media attention in the middle of the 19th century, in the Wiener Allgemeinen Theaterzeitung (Viennese common theatre newspaper). On the theatre’s stage Arthur Schnitzler set a literary monument for the Burg Bastion in Der junge Medardus. The performance of 1910 at the Burgtheater was sensational; the remakes 1922 and 1932 were received under other auspices. Essential for the reception of 1910 was the contrasting narrowness (old town) and the expanse (the view) which was exemplified by the bastion. Extra special was the open outlook to the suburbs. The outlook into the wide space was lost in the 1920s and replaced with the view on the past, to be newly explored. Because the view had changed, for the film adaptation of the jungen Medardus 1923, the audience looked over the bastions towards the town centre. In the 1930s, the final, whole departed age of Emperor Franz and Joseph was transformed into a message of loss. of loss.